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All preceding studies had been wofully inaccurate 7. In spite of the fact that this is a literal translation, it sometimes attains strength and beauty by reason of its very simplicity.

See article in the Dictionary of National Biography. See infra, pp. See supra on Turner, p. Heldengedicht des achten Jahrhunderts.

Zum ersten Male aus dem Angelsächsischen in das Neuhochdeutsche stabreimend übersetzt, und mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen versehen von Ludwig Ettmüller.

Zürich, bei Meyer und Zeller, Ernst Moritz Ludwig Ettmüller —77 , at the time of the publication of this book, was professor of the German 38 language and literature in the Gymnasium at Zürich.

He had already appeared as a translator with a work entitled Lieder der Edda von den Nibelungen. This text incorporated many new readings.

Ettmüller was the first to question the unity of the Beowulf , and sketched a theory of interpolations which has since been developed by Müllenhoff.

The first announcement of these views is found in the introduction to this translation. Like Kemble, Ettmüller was a close student of the works of Jakob Grimm, and his interpretation of obscure lines especially passages relating to Germanic antiquities is largely due to the study of such works as the Deutsche Mythologie , the Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer , and the Deutsche Sagen —8.

In his translation Ettmüller followed in the steps of Kemble 2 , but he was not slavishly dependent upon him. At times he disagrees with the English scholar cp.

In general, the translation is strictly literal, and follows the original almost line for line. It was probably well for Ettmüller that he made his translation thus literal.

In the history of a foreign-language study there is a period when it is best that a translation should be strictly literal, for such a work is bound to be called into service as a part of the critical apparatus for the interpretation of the tongue.

It is not until criticism and scholarship have done their strictly interpretative work that a translation is safe in attempting to render the spirit rather than the letter of the original.

By the publication of this volume, therefore, Ettmüller did for German scholarship what Kemble had done for English and Schaldemose was to do for Danish scholarship.

Yet he might with propriety have made his work more simple. His translation is disfigured by numerous strange word-combinations which he often transcribed literally from the original, e.

It is safe to say that none but a scholar in Old English would be able to understand this word—if, indeed, we may call it a word.

The text is full of such forms. The author 41 is obliged to append notes explaining his own translation!

He apparently forgets that it is his business as translator to render the difficult words as well as the simple ones.

The book had no extraordinary success. Moreover, the translation was not accompanied by an edition of the text. Grein 4 , the next German scholar, took his inspiration from Kemble 5 and Thorpe 6 rather than from Ettmüller.

In this book the Old English text and the Danish translation were printed in parallel columns. The text, which was taken literally from Kemble 1 , need not detain us here.

No mention is made of the work of Leo 2 , Ettmüller 3 , or of the volume of Kemble, although 42 the influence of the latter is evident throughout the book, as will be shown below.

The notes are drawn largely from the works of preceding scholars, and in these the author makes an occasional acknowledgement of indebtedness.

The translation is literal. Schaldemose had the advantage of presenting the most modern text side by side with the translation. Thus the book became a valuable apparatus criticus for the Danish student.

The life of Frederik Schaldemose — was by no means the quiet, retired life of the student. After leaving his professorship he again entered military service.

Later, he devoted his time alternately to literary and commercial work. His interest in Beowulf seems to have been, like that of Thorkelin 5 , primarily the interest of the Danish antiquary.

In he had published a collection of Heroic Danish Songs, ancient and modern. It was doubtless a desire to add to this collection that led him to undertake an edition of the Beowulf.

It was hardly to be expected that a man whose life had been so unsettled could materially advance the interpretation of Old English poetry.

Being so, it could not be without merit. There was need of a literal translation in Denmark. In general, the Danish translator is stopped by the same passages that defy the English translator, e.

I can find no evidence for the reiterated 6 statement that Schaldemose is throughout his translation slavishly indebted to Ettmüller.

The translation, being strictly literal, naturally commanded very little attention even in Denmark; while it was utterly without interest for readers and students in other countries.

See Wülker, Ang. Beowulf, an epic poem translated from the Anglo-Saxon into English verse, by A. Diedrich Wackerbarth, A.

Kemble addressed the world of scholars; Wackerbarth the world of readers. Wackerbarth rather resembles Conybeare 2 in trying to reproduce the spirit of the poem, and make his book appeal to a popular audience.

Wackerbarth had the advantage of basing his translation on the accurate and scholarly version of Kemble; yet Conybeare and Wackerbarth were equally unsuccessful in catching the spirit of the original.

The reason for their failure is primarily in the media which they chose. It would seem that if there were a measure less suited to the Beowulf style than the Miltonic blank verse used by Conybeare, it would be the ballad measures used by Wackerbarth.

The movement of the ballad is easy, rapid, and garrulous. Now, if there are three qualities of which the Beowulf is not possessed, they are ease, rapidity, and garrulity.

Not only does the poet avoid superfluous words—the ballad never does—but he frequently does not use words enough. His meaning is thus often vague and nebulous, or harsh and knotted.

Nor can the poem properly be called rapid. It is often hurried, and more often insufficient in detail, but it never has sustained rapidity.

The kenning alone is hostile to rapidity. The poet lingers lovingly over his thought as if loath to leave it; he repeats, amplifies.

But there is still another reason for shunning them. They are almost continuously suggestive of Scott.

Of all men else the translator of Beowulf should avoid Scott. His is the self-conscious, dramatic, gorgeous age of 49 chivalry, of knight and lady, of pomp and pride.

Beowulf is simple to bareness. There is a plethora of adjectives, scarcely one of which is found in the original; but they are of no avail—they are too commonplace to render the strength and raciness of the original words.

The heroic atmosphere is gone. In passages calling for calmness, solemnity, or elevation of thought—and there are many such—the easy flow of a verse monotonous and trivial effectually destroys the beauty of the lines.

It was better to have Beowulf according to Wackerbarth than no Beowulf at all. Oxford: printed by James Wright, Printer to the University.

Considering the amount of time that had elapsed between this and the edition of Kemble 1 , Thorpe can hardly be said to have made a satisfactory advance.

It is probable, 51 for example, that the collation of which the author speaks in his introduction was the one which he had made twenty years before, and that, in taking up his work a second time, he did not trouble himself to revise it.

At any rate, the MS. Thorpe was more clever than the former scholar in deciphering faded lines of the MS.

Thus his edition presents striking divergences from later texts, while no explanation of them is offered in the footnotes. Not only does he frequently incorporate his own readings in the text without noting the MS.

Not only does he fail to state that he has changed MS. Thorpe is seen to have the advantage in deciphering certain parts of the text, see e.

On the other hand, Kemble is far more conscientious. Thus at line 13 Thorpe reads ne as if it were found in the MS.

It is not there, and Kemble is right in inclosing the letters in parentheses. This being a strictly literal translation, the reader is referred to the sections on the text for a valuation and criticism.

It is a question whether there was need for another literal rendering in England at this time. It is quite unlikely that Thorpe intended any imitation.

The influence of this edition has been considerable. It was the principal authority used by Grein 4 and Heyne 5 in constructing their texts.

Thus its influence was felt in all texts down to the publication of the Zupitza Autotypes Thomas Arnold 6 copied the text almost word for word.

Line in Kemble; in Thorpe. Dichtungen der Angelsachsen, stabreimend übersetzt von C. Erster Band. Göttingen: Georg H. Wigand, Zweite Titel- Auflage, Stabreimend übersetzt von Professor Dr.

Zweite Auflage. Kassel: Georg H. Christian Wilhelm Michael Grein 1 —77 was eminently well fitted for the editing and translating of Old English poetry.

He possessed a natural aptitude for the study of Germanic Philology, and had the advantage of studying with an excellent professor, Franz Eduard Christoph Dietrich —83 , in the University at Marburg.

In the same year he printed a translation of the Heliand. In he assumed the position of Praktikant at the Kassel Landesbibliothek. Here he was able to devote a large part of his attention to the study of Old English, acquiring a familiarity with the poetry of that tongue which it has seldom been the fortune of a scholar to surpass.

He formed the design of editing and translating the entire body of Old English poetry and appending to it a complete glossary which should not only give the meanings of the words, but instance every occurrence of the word.

This design he carried out between the years and Grein never saw the MS. He based his text on a collation of all the preceding editions.

This was unfortunate, because, had Grein seen the MS. As it was, his edition necessarily shares some of the faults of its predecessors, since the text had never yet been accurately transcribed.

As has been pointed out, this is an impossible reading, and one for which there is no justification in the MS.

Thorpe, however, had presented it as the MS. Like Kemble, Grein had a supreme respect for the readings of the MS.

This was wise. Since the days of Kemble, emendation had become unnecessarily frequent. The dialect had not yet received proper attention, and the copyists were blamed for errors that they never made.

Grein was extremely clever in filling the lacunae of the MS. Still another improvement which he introduced was the full punctuation of the text; this was superior to any that had preceded it.

In previous editions defective punctuation had obscured the sense of the lines; here it was made a factor in their interpretation.

The second edition of the translation see supra, p. The differences are seldom more than verbal, and are largely in the early parts of the poem.

The second edition is, of course, superior. The translation is a literal line-for-line version. Its superiority to its predecessors is, therefore, one with the superiority of the text on which it is founded.

The translation became at once the standard commentary on Beowulf , and this position it retained for many years. It is still the standard literal translation in Germany, none of the later versions having equaled it in point of accuracy.

See Grein-Wülker, Bibliothek , Vorrede. The second edition presents no variation from this save the omission of the comma in line Das älteste deutsche Epos.

Uebersetzt und erläutert von Dr. Karl Simrock. Stuttgart und Augsburg: J. Karl Simrock — brought to the translation of Beowulf the thorough knowledge of a scholar, 60 the fine feeling and technique of a poet, and an enviable reputation as a translator of Old German poetry.

At the time when he made his translation of Beowulf , he was Professor of Old German Literature at Bonn, whither he had been called because of his contributions to the study of Old German mythology.

As an original poet, Simrock is remembered for his Wieland der Schmied , and Gedichte Simrock wished to do for Beowulf what he had done for the Nibelungenlied , Walther von der Vogelweide , and Der arme Heinrich.

The diction of the version is, on the whole, characterized by simplicity and ease. These forms he sometimes used to the exclusion of simpler, or even 61 more literal, words.

The nature of the German language, however, keeps these from being as repulsive as they are in English, but they are sufficiently strange to mystify and annoy the reader.

He also preserved alliteration, believing that a fondness for that poetic adornment may be easily acquired, and that it is by no means inconsistent with the genius of modern tongues.

The notes to the translation contain discussions of the episodes and of the mythological personages of the poem. There is a discussion of the poetic worth of Beowulf , and an argument for the German origin of the poem.

This practice of inserting the Finnsburg fragment, lately revived by Hoffmann 3 , has been generally repudiated.

The translator acknowledges his indebtedness to the versions of Ettmüller and Grein. Yet, in spite of this, the book is not well known among German translations, and has never passed into a second edition.

Angelsächsisches Heldengedicht übersetzt von Moritz Heyne. Paderborn: Druck und Verlag von Ferd.

Schöningh, The name of Moritz Heyne is one of the most illustrious in the history of Beowulf scholarship.

The Heyne editions of the text 1 have been standard for nearly forty years, 64 while the translation has been recently reprinted At the time when he printed his edition of the Beowulf, Heyne was a student at Halle, and but twenty-six years of age born 2.

In his work he had some assistance from Professor Leo 3 of Halle. The translation was founded on the text of At the time it was by far the best edition that had yet appeared.

It was furnished with an excellent glossary. The text had the advantage of the valuable work done by Grundtvig 4 in collating the two transcripts made by Thorkelin 5.

It thus came a stage nearer the MS. The differences between the two editions are not of much importance. The translation is in general, though not always, brought up to the late editions of the text, 65 and some changes are made for the improvement of the meter.

The first edition contains lines; the second The theory and aim of the translation are not changed at all.

In this translation of the Beowulf , Heyne attempts to popularize what he considers the most beautiful of the Old English poems. With this in view, Heyne put his translation out in a form that would make it accessible to all.

This was in itself an innovation. Heyne chose a new medium for his version, the unrimed iambic line. His aim being to get his book read, he avoided a literal translation, and rendered with commendable freedom, though not with inaccuracy.

He used no strange compounds, and shunned an unnatural verse. Thus he produced the most readable translation that has ever appeared in Germany.

Of his own attempt he says—. He has been criticized on all sides for his freedom. Yet the criticism is undeserved. Heyne is never paraphrastic—he never adds anything foreign to the poem.

He merely believes in translating the obscure as well as the simple ideas of his text. Da schwammt ihr hinaus in See ,. In the second place, the translation of the Old English phrase beadu-runen onband should be noticed, and compared with the translations of Ettmüller, Grein, and Simrock, who have respectively—.

Heyne is the only one who translates the phrase in such a way as to make the words intelligible to a reader unacquainted with Old English.

Finally, it should be noticed that the translation is quite as accurate as those which preceded it. Heyne certainly succeeded in his attempt to make the poem more intelligible to the general reader than it had ever been before.

There have been six—, , , , , ; the last two are by Dr. Adolf Socin. Heyne is at present Professor in the University of Göttingen. In Beowulfs Beorh.

See also supra, p. Beovulf Bärwelf. Das älteste deutsche Heldengedicht. Aus dem Angelsächsischen von Hans von Wolzogen. Leipzig: Philipp Reclam, jun.

There is no evidence that he had any special interest in Old English studies. The translation is in alliterative measures, called by the translator imitative of the Old English.

Von Wolzogen is concerned for this feature of his work, and is at pains to 69 give what he considers a full account of the original verse as well as a lengthy defence of alliteration.

Archaic touches are occasional. The account of the Fall of Hygelac and of Heardred, —96, is shifted to line p.

So sagte Hunfrid 3 , der Sohn des Eckleif ,. To give one example from the thousand that bear out the truth of this statement, we may cite line p.

The translator is obliged at times to append footnotes explaining the scansion of his lines see pp. The cesura is frequently not in evidence cf.

See Vorbemerkung, p. No edition of the text of Beowulf had appeared in England since the work of Thorpe 1 , now twenty years 72 old.

The textual criticism of the Germans had, meanwhile, greatly advanced the interpretation of the poem. There was an opportunity, therefore, for an improved English edition which should incorporate the results of German scholarship.

This edition Mr. Thomas Arnold — undertook to supply. The Introduction contained a new theory of the origin of the poem 2.

But the important part of the book was the text and translation. There is no glossary 3. The notes are at the bottom of the page.

Here glossarial, textual, and literary information is bundled together. There is a very inadequate bibliography in the Introduction.

The translation is a literal prose version, printed under the text. It eschews unwieldy compounds, and makes no attempt to acquire an archaic flavor.

Supplied words are bracketed. Arnold had access to the MS. But, strangely enough, he did not make it the basis of his edition. Of course the faded condition of the MS.

In order to test the accuracy of these statements I have made a collation of the texts of Arnold, Thorpe, and the MS.

Yet there was no excuse at this time for the retention of many of these readings. Arnold makes almost no 74 reference to the work of Heyne, and incorporates none of his emendations.

Arnold himself did not emend the text in a single instance. The translation is literal, and its value is therefore in direct ratio to the value of the text, which has been discussed above.

A theory which the author continued to regard as partially tenable. See Notes on Beowulf London, , p. Contrast this with the editions of Heyne.

See p. See Amer. Journal of Philol. See Beowulfs Beorh , and p. Havre: Lepelletier, Other scholars, if they devoted themselves to English at all, studied chiefly the later periods of the literature 2.

This was the first scholarly attention that the poem received in France. The genius of Old English poetry is at the furthest possible remove from that of the French.

Had it been so intended, the translator would have rendered more literally. His introduction 4 proves that the book was addressed to the general reader rather than the student of Old English.

The Introduction deals with the nature of Old English poetry, and makes historical and critical remarks on the Beowulf. There are occasional notes explanatory of the text.

In his critical work the author is chiefly indebted to Grein 5 and Heyne 6. The translation, which is in prose, is characterized, as the author himself admits, by extreme freedom and occasional omission of words and phrases.

It has been customary, in speaking of the work of M. Botkine, to call attention to the numerous omissions. This is misleading.

The passages which the translator has omitted are not the obscure episodes or the long digressions, but the metaphors, the parenthetical phrases, and especially kennings and similar appositives.

The principal passages which Botkine omits entirely are: ba; b; —; — The author seems to have been well acquainted with the scholarly work done on Beowulf up to his time.

He appears to follow, in general, the text of Heyne, not, however, invariably. If the translation is compared with the text, the reader will be struck by the characteristic beauty of the words omitted.

We may agree with the translator regarding the difficulty of rendering compound and kenning into French, and yet the very absence of an attempt to do this jeopardizes the value of the translation more than the omission of many episodes, for it brings it dangerously near to paraphrase.

A part of the story has been thrown away with the adjectives. The force and beauty of the passage are gone.

But there is another danger in this paraphrastic method. In omitting words and phrases, the translator will often misinterpret his original.

In attempting to simplify the Old English, he departs from the original 79 sense. Instances of this may be brought forward from the Finn episode:.

Botkine makes of this—. The rendering is not without its amusing features, chiefly illustrations of the inability of the French language to accommodate itself to typically Germanic expressions.

Save Michel. Paris, Leroux, Omits middan-geardes. Omits under heofonum. Omits lines — a. Omits wintrys wylum.

Lumsden 1. London: C. Lumsden, late Royal Artillery. Second edition, revised and corrected. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co. In the first edition of the translation a number of passages were omitted.

Some of these omissions were owing to corrupt text, some to extreme obscurity of the original, and some merely to the fact that the original was deemed uninteresting.

The principal omissions were: 83—86; —; —; —; —; —; ; —; — These passages were inserted in the second edition. Thus his work resembles that of Wackerbarth 2 ; and, like Wackerbarth, he couched his translation in ballad measures.

Lumsden does not vary his measure, but preserves the iambic heptameter throughout. His lines rime in couplets.

The Introduction and Notes contain popular expositions of the work of preceding scholars. Garnett has shown 5 that Lumsden ignored the text of Grein and the editions of Heyne.

These defects were remedied to some extent in the second edition. Lumsden himself never emends the text. The extract illustrates the paraphrastic nature of parts of the translation.

Lumsden frequently seems to feel it necessary to read a meaning into the obscure lines and 82 passages that do not easily lend themselves to translation; cf.

At line Lumsden translates:—. The passage is certainly obscure, and the readings are not all undoubted, but the words can never be tortured into meaning what Lumsden tries to make them mean.

But it would be manifestly unfair to judge a translation addressed to the general reader merely by scholarly tests. The work must make its appeal as a literary rendering.

The propriety of adopting a ballad measure may be questioned. Probably no measure could be found more unlike the Old English lines.

Moreover, by reason of its long association with purely popular poetry, it constantly suggests the commonplace and the trivial.

But above all, it is reminiscent of a medievalism wholly different from that of Beowulf. The saving grace of the ballad measure is its readableness.

It is rather effective in passages not too dignified, calling for action. But in passages of elevation the line is found wanting:—.

See American Journal of Philology , ii. From the second edition. Garnett, M. In the second edition the translation was collated with the Grein-Wülker text, and wherever necessary, with the Zupitza Autotypes.

Additions were made to the bibliography:—. As has been pointed out above in the sections on Arnold 1 and Lumsden 2 , no satisfactory literal translation of Beowulf existed in English.

Furthermore, an American translation had never appeared. It was with a view to presenting the latest German interpretations of the poem 84 that Garnett prepared his literal version of the poem.

The original draft of the translation was made at St. In the second edition notes are added showing the variants from the Grein-Wülker text of Of this feature of his work Professor Garnett says:—.

The swimming-match with Breca. Joy in Heorot. The translation, in its revised form, is throughout a faithful version of the original text.

The rendering may be word for word, but it will not be idea for idea. Examples of this inadequacy may be given from the printed extract.

Had the poet simply meant to express the notion of grief , he would have used sorh , cearu , or some other common word.

Examples of this sort can be brought forward from any part of the poem. At line Garnett translates—.

It would seem from the way in which the measure is used that it was a kind of second thought, incident upon the use of a line-for-line translation.

It is hard to read the lines as 87 anything but prose, and, if they appeared in any other form upon the page, it is to be questioned whether any one would have guessed that they were intended to be imitative.

The book received long and respectful reviews from the Germans. Professor Child and Henry Sweet expressed their approbation.

The book has passed through four editions. This cordial welcome has been due in large measure to the increasing attention given the poem in American colleges and secondary schools.

Being strictly literal, the book has been of value as a means of interpreting the poem. Beovulf, poema epico anglosassone del vii secolo, tradotto e illustrato dal Dott.

Giusto Grion, Socio Ordinario. Tomo XXII. Lucca: Tipografia Giusti, Full discussions of 1 Mito; 2 Storia; 3 Letteratura. The latter is a fairly complete bibliography of what had been done on Beowulf up to this time.

The translator makes use of all the texts and commentaries that had appeared up to his time, and even goes so far as to emend the text for himself cf.

The Notes are rather full. They are sometimes merely explanatory; sometimes there are discussions of the MS.

The translation is literal; the medium an imitative measure of four principal stresses, varied occasionally by the expanded line.

The diction is simple. In purpose and method this version may be compared with that of Kemble 1 and of Schaldemose 2. In each case the translator was introducing the poem to a foreign public, and it was therefore well that the translation should be literal in order that it might assist in the interpretation of the original.

There has been no further work done on the poem in Italy 3. While the verse is not strictly imitative in the sense that it preserves exactly the Old English system of versification, it aims to maintain the general movement of the original lines.

The four stresses are kept, save where a fifth is used to avoid monotony. Of a work by G. Beowulf, en fornengelsk hjeltedikt, öfversatt af Rudolf Wickberg.

Westervik, C. The translator begins his introduction with a discussion of the importance of Beowulf as a historical document. For this reason he is especially interested in the episodes:—.

The author constructs his own text. He explains p. At the Clarendon Press, February. Some of these materials had been used by Garnett in his translation, but the majority of them were of later date.

Nothing is said in the introduction respecting the aim of the translation; but it is evident from the Notes that the purpose was twofold—to present the latest interpretation of the text, and to afford a literary version of the poem.

But the translator does not depend slavishly upon his text. He frequently uses emendations suggested by the scholars mentioned above, especially those of Professor 93 Sophus Bugge in Studien über das Beowulfsepos 7 ; see lines , , , , , The Introduction presents a new theory of the origin of the poem.

The notes are especially interesting because of the large body of quotations cited for literary comparison and for the light they throw on Old Germanic and medieval customs.

As a whole, the translation may fairly be called faithful. The emendations from which Professor Earle sometimes 94 renders are always carefully chosen, and the discussions of obscure lines in the poem are of real scholarly interest.

But this is not always true of the simpler passages of the poem. Thus, at line , Earle reads for. Now this is nothing more than an attempt on the part of the translator to wring from the Old English lines some scrap of proof for the peculiar theory that he holds of the origin of the poem.

Similarly, he often reads into a single word more than it can possibly bear. At line he translates—.

The archaic style used by Professor Earle cannot be regarded as highly felicitous, since it mixes the diction of various ages.

The reason for these anomalies is evident—the translator wishes to imitate the remoteness of the original style. The style is certainly remote—at times almost as remote from the language of to-day as is the style of Beowulf itself.

XIV, Beiträge , XI, 1; Studien über das Beowulfsepos. Beiträge , XI, 1 ff. See the glossaries of Grein and Wyatt. Boston: D.

Heath and Co. The footnotes which contain the conjectural readings are interesting, and in one or two cases valuable additions to the suggested emendations cf.

Unferth, a thane of Hrothgar, is jealous of Beowulf, and undertakes to twit him. Breca outdid you entirely. Much more will Grendel outdo you, if you vie with him in prowess.

The translation is faithful, but not literal. The chief difference, for example, between this and the translation by Garnett is that Hall makes an attempt to preserve the poetic value of the Old English words.

He is never satisfied with the dictionary equivalent of an Old English expression. This method often leads the translator some distance, perhaps too great a distance, from the Old English.

The following may serve as examples of the heightened color that Hall gives to the Old English forms:—. Perhaps these paraphrastic renderings are what Dr.

As for the archaism, that is well enough for those who like it. It is never so strange as that of Earle, or the marvelous diction of William Morris.

But it is not, therefore, 99 dignified or clear. How much dignity and clarity a translator has a right to introduce into his rendering is a matter of opinion.

Hall was quite conscious of what he was doing, and doubtless regarded his diction as well suited to convey the original Beowulf spirit.

The chief criticism of the verse is that it is often not verse at all. Many passages are indistinguishable from prose. There might be an excuse for some of this freedom in blank verse, but in measures imitative of the Old English it is utterly out of place.

There is always a pause at the end of a line in Old English; run-on lines are uncommon. Aeltestes deutsches Heldengedicht.

Aus dem Angelsächsischen übertragen von P. Verlag von Herm. Liebich ? In Minerva , P. The translator desired to present a rendering of the poem that should attract the general reader.

He regards the Beowulf as of great importance in inspiring patriotism—he always calls the poem German—and even offers a comparison of Beowulf with Emperor William I.

With the scholarship of his subject the author hardly seems concerned. In addition to the translation, the volume contains articles on the history of the text, origin, the Germanic hero-tales, the episodes, the esthetic value of the poem.

These are decidedly subordinate in interest to the translation. The translation is in the so-called Nibelungen measures.

Archaisms and unnatural compounds are avoided. The Finnsburg fragment is inserted in the text at line , p. The episode is furnished with a beginning and ending original with Hoffmann.

It is a sufficient condemnation of the volume to quote the words of the Vorwort:—. It is not surprising that Hoffmann is unacquainted with the translations of Holder and Möller, as these works have never been made; but that a German translator should ignore the version of Grein is a revelation indeed.

Even though a translator may not care to embody in his work any new interpretations, it is nevertheless his duty to base his translation on the best text that he can find.

But apparently Hoffmann had never heard of the Heyne editions of the text, nor of the Grein-Wülker Bibliothek. He evidently considered it a sufficient recommendation of his work to associate with it the name of Grein, not troubling himself to discover what advance had been made upon the work of that scholar.

Petty inaccuracies due to the nature of the translation also appear. An example of this is seen on page 3, at the opening of the first canto—.

The translation resembles the work of Lumsden 5 and Wackerbarth 6 in affording a version of the tale easily readable.

And the same criticism may be passed on the work of Hoffmann that was passed on the two Englishmen. The Nibelungenlied is a poem of the late twelfth century.

The Beowulf at latest belongs to the eighth. It may find an audience where another and more faithful rendering would fail; but it will never win the esteem of scholars.

In his introduction Hoffmann calls attention to the lack of variety in blank verse, but surely it does not have the monotony inherent in a recurring rime and strophe.

Again, rime and strophe force upon the author the use of words and phrases needed to pad out the verse or stanza.

Attention must also be called to the fact that the original seldom affords a natural pause at the exact point demanded by the use of a strophic form.

One effect of the forced pause is that there is confusion in the use of kennings, which often have to do duty as subject in one stanza and as object in another stanza.

Wyatt, and printed by said William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, Uppermall, Hammersmith, in the county of Middlesex, and finished on the tenth day of January, Large 4 o , pp.

In the second edition a title-page is added. The running commentary, printed in rubric on the margin of the first edition, is omitted.

The plan of joining with his own the name of his principal teacher was one which Morris had used before when translating from a foreign tongue.

Wyatt had any hand in forming the final draft of the translation. In defending it, Morris took all the responsibility for the book upon himself, and he always spoke of it as his own work.

In writing to a German student toward the end of his life Morris spoke of the translation as his own without mentioning Mr.

Wyatt 1. Nor has Mr. Wyatt shown a disposition to claim a share in the work. In the preface to his edition of the text of Beowulf Cambridge, , he says:—.

Finally, it may be added that the specimens of Mr. None despised the merely literal rendering of an epic poem more than William Morris.

He believed it possible, e. The archaism of the English would represent the archaism of the Greek. This method he used in rendering Vergil and Homer.

But when he approached the translation of Beowulf , he was confronted by a new problem. It was evident that fifteenth-century English was ill-adapted to convey any just notion of eighth-century English.

Beowulf required a diction older than that of Sir Thomas Malory or Chaucer. Hence it became necessary to discard the theory altogether, or else to produce another style which should in some true sense be imitative of Beowulf.

This latter Morris tried to accomplish by increasing the archaism of his style by every means in his power. This feature is discussed in the following section.

The translation of Beowulf is written in extremely archaic language. An imitative measure of four principal stresses is used.

Wherever possible, the Old English syntax has been preserved see line ; the word-order of the original is retained. The archaic language is wrought of several different kinds of words.

Romance words are excluded whenever possible. It is therefore of importance to the student of the Beowulf. As a literary rendering the translation is disappointing.

In the first place, it must be frankly avowed that the diction is frequently so strange that it seems to modern readers well-nigh ridiculous.

There are certain sentences which cannot but evoke a smile. Secondly, the translation is unreadable. There is an avalanche of archaisms.

One example of the extreme obscurity may be given:—. Finally, the version does not translate.

The verse is not nearly so rough as the original; many of the characteristic substitutions are avoided. The feminine ending is frequently used.

The verse is, therefore, not strictly imitative in that it retains the Old English system of versification, but rather in that it attempts to suggest the Old English movement by the use of four principal stresses and a varying number of unstressed syllables.

Gent, A. Siffer, Large 8 o , pp. With this in view he adds to his translation copious notes and an exhaustive comment. Explanatory and critical comment is given in the footnotes, and textual criticism in the Notes at the end of the volume.

He adds that this was no easy task, as Dutch does not afford the same variety of simile as the Old English.

A page is then given to the discussion of the nature of his verse. He has often preferred the simple alliteration aa, bb to the Old English system 2.

Gij maat de zeebahn , zwaaiend met de handen,. The translation seems to aim chiefly at accuracy, which accounts for the rather large number of notes containing readings suggested by various commentators.

The translator uses freely compounds and metaphors similar to those in the original text. This seems occasionally to militate against the clearness of the work.

At this point Simons speaks as if ab, ab, were the common form of alliteration in Old English, whereas it is rather uncommon.

Altenglische Dichtungen Beowulf, Elene, u. Leipzig, , O. Fragmentary passages are not restored. It would be manifestly unfair to criticize this translation for its want of grace and melody, because it is avowedly a literal rendering, and a literal rendering makes no attempt to attain these qualities.

But there are certain things which are indispensable in a good literal translation. It is imperative that such a translation should be based on the best text of the original poem.

What has Steineck done? It seems almost incredible that a German, living in the midst of scholars who have done more than any other people to interpret the Beowulf , should ignore the fruits of their efforts.

It is unnecessary to enumerate the faults of this translation due to dependence upon an antiquated edition of the text.

Suffice it to say that when the edition of was printed the text had not yet been properly transcribed from the MS.

But there are evidences of an inaccuracy of a different kind that betray a carelessness utterly reprehensible.

The author is apparently unable to transliterate properly the Old English names. As compounds these may not be offensive to a German; but the trouble with them is that they do not translate the Old English ideas.

Finally, it may be asked why a translation that appeals only as a literal rendering should not be strictly literal, noting its every variation from the original, italicizing supplied words, holding to the original word-order.

In point of accuracy the book is not worthy to stand with good translations thirty years old. Clark Hall, M. With twelve illustrations 1.

London: Swan Sonnenschein and Company, Lim. Hitherto Dr. Hall had been chiefly known to the learned world for his excellent Anglo-Saxon Dictionary for Students.

Moreover, this translation was the first to embody the results of various studies on the poem during the past decade. Unlike the preceding works on Beowulf , it may be said that the introductory and illustrative matter in this book is of quite as much importance as the translation.

The author says of his book:—. Statements similar to these have been put forth by other translators of the poem, but the material of their volume has not always borne them out.

The translation is founded on the text of A. Wyatt, Cambridge, In his translation Dr. Frequent reference is also made to the work of Cosijn, Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf The translation is a literal prose version.

It is constantly interrupted by bits of running comment, designed to overcome the inherent obscurity of the poem, or to afford an elaborate digest of the story if read without the translation p.

The extract is typical of all that is best in the translation. At times the translation, as here, verges on a literary rendering.

But in this respect the first part of the poem is vastly superior to the later parts, though all three are marred by extreme literalness.

Hall did not always escape the strange diction that has so often before disfigured the translations of Beowulf :—.

It is also rather surprising to learn from Dr. It should be added that the explanatory comment which constantly interrupts the translation, often six or eight times in a section, is annoying, both because it distracts the attention and because it is often presented in a style wholly inappropriate to the context.

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